Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo
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Abstract 2023

Rivista Mineralogica Italiana > Abstract Articoli
nr. 1-2023

Angelo Da Costa (1940-2022) was a master for many of the collectors who follow the pages of the Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, especially for those from his region: Tuscany. Angelo began to collect minerals between the 1960s and 1970s, experiencing the transition from the solitary pioneering period to the organized and participated one of the mineralogical associations. Angelo was a curious explorer and an excellent digger. In 50 years, Angelo has built up a wonderful regional collection based exclusively  on  specimens  self-collected, exchanged or donated by friends. Hanging around Tuscany in search of minerals, he met several generations of collectors, first learning from the elder and then teaching the younger ones. Angelo  left  a  memory  of  himself  in all the people he met, but the trace he cared about most is certainly the selection of specimens from his collection acquired by the Museum of Mineralogy of the University of Pisa, where it will remain forever. Those minerals, in addition to being of considerable aesthetic and scientific value, will continue to tell the stories of his explorations for those who want to try to read the geological history of our planet.

The mineral collections of the Natural History Museum of the Pisa University are composed by more than 20,000 specimens. Among them, mineral specimens from Tuscany are well-represented, owing to the interest shared by several mineralogists of the Pisa University for the sampling and study of the mineralogical occurrences of this Italian region. Angelo Da Costa previously contributed to increase the mineral collections of the Pisa University through some donations. For instance, he donated the exceptional aggregates of quartz crystals found at Mount Cascetto, in the Monte Pisano metamorphic complex, in 1995 along with Andrea Dini and Marco Lorenzoni. The Angelo Da Costa mineral collection was formed by more than 600 specimens mainly found in Tuscany; most of them were self-collected during a a collecting activity last for 50 years. The Natural History Museum a selection of 33 specimens accurately chosen from his collection. Several outstanding specimens from the Apuan Alps hydrothermal veins were collected by Angelo Da Costa. At the beginning of the 1970s, he discovered some vein systems in the Acqua Bianca valley, in north-eastern Apuan Alps. A very nice hematite specimen, with crystals up to 3.5 cm, and colorless crystals of quartz from these findings  have  been  acquired  by the Natural  History Museum. Another hematite specimen, from a nearby locality (Vagli), was also added to the mineral collections of the Pisa University. Nice specimens from the old mines occurring in the southern Apuan Alps were also acquired:among them, baryte crystals from the Buca dell’Angina mine, cerussite from the Santa Barbara tunnel, in the Argentiera di Sant’Anna mining complex, aragonite flos ferri from the Canale della Radice mines, and two important specimens of smoky quartz from the Pollone mine. Angelo Da Costa also discovered some vein systems in the Monte Pisano metamorphic complex; two specimens of goethite after rhombohedral carbonates from the Vorno and Sant’Andrea di Compito vein systems are representative of these findings. Angelo Da Costa also explored the mineralogical localities of the Campigliese area. He found nice specimensof quartz and ilvaite crystals in the cavities of the hedenbergite + ilvaite skarns of the Temperino mine; three samples from these findings are now in the mineral collections of the Natural History Museum of the Pisa University. One of them is characterized by a thin coating of iron oxy-hydroxides on the quartz crystals, with a nice aesthetic effect. In the deeply oxidized skarns of the Buche al Ferro, Angelo collected one of the most representative specimens of aurichalcite, associated with colorless hemimorphite. Also this sample is now kept in the Museum’s collections. Some interesting specimens are from the Botro ai Marmi area: a 10-cm fluorite octahedron, a well-developed tabular crystal of allanite-(Ce), nice crystals of “scapolite” and arsenopyrite, a huge individual of “adularia”, and an aesthetic quartz specimen. Four specimens from the Colline Metallifere area were bought from the Da Costa collection. The most spectacular is a specimen of quartz from the Campiano mine, whereas a druse of amethyst quartz from the Gavorrano mine and of sulfur from the Niccioleta mine have only a regional significance. On the contrary, a quartz sample found by Angelo Da Costa within cavities of skarn bodies cropping out in the Val Castrucci area, close to the old mine of Fenice-Capanne, near Massa Marittima, has a very high quality. In the collection of Angelo Da Costa, there were several interesting specimens from other Tuscan localities: antimony ore deposits from southern Tuscany, minerals from the Pitigliano ejecta, gypsum crystals from several evaporitic outcrops, and specimens from the pegmatites of the Elba Island. Shiny stibnite crystals from the Pereta  mine,  related  to  the  nice  findings performed between 1979 and 1981, during the last mining activity at this locality, were acquired by the Natural History Museum, as well as a large specimen of sulfur from the nearby locality of Zolfiere. Another specimen of stibnite from the Montauto mine, not far from the more famous Tafone mine, was also obtained. A specimen f vesuvianite from Pitigliano and large crystals of gypsum from Triassic evaporites cropping out at Roccastrada were added to the Pisa University collections. As regard gypsum, Angelo Da Costa had collected a lot of very well-developed crystals from the Mio-pliocenic formations from several localities (Monti Livornesi, Gambassi Terme): one nice specimen from Gambassi Terme was bought by the Pisa University. Last but not least, a wonderful specimen of tourmaline from the  findings  performed  in  1994  at Forcioni, in the Elba Island, was chosen for the collection of the Natural History Museum. This specimen and the exceptional finding are described in another paper in this issue of the Rivista Mineralogica Italiana.

The occurrence of sulfosalts from the Apuan Alps hydrothermal ore deposits has been known since the 19th Century and currently 25 sulfosalt species have there their type-locality. Several of them are very rare, as for instance the lead-antimony oxy-sulfosalts and oxy-chloro-sulfosalts from the Buca della Vena mine, the complex silver-lead sulfosalts from the Pollone mine, and the Tl-Pb-Hg-Ag-Cu-Sb-As sulfosalts from the Monte Arsiccio mine. However, one of the most  significant  sulfosalts  from  the Apuan Alps is boulangerite. Indeed, its specimens found at the Bottino mine can be considered among the best representatives of this species. The Bottino mine is hosted within the Paleozoic basement of the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex and exploited several ore bodies but the major production was obtained from the socalled Bottino ore body. This was represented by a strongly deformed and folded sulfide concentration cut by a shear zone during the Alpine orogeny; along this tectonic structure, sulfides were partially remobilized and reprecipitated. The Bottino ore body was exploited for 400 meters along strike and 350 m along dip, from the outcrops (at 525 m above sea level) down to the 170 m level. It was formed by two main ore shoots, the so-called Sansoni and Orsini columns. These high-grade zones were formed by massive sulfides (galena, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, pyrite) along with minor gangue minerals
(quartz, carbonates). Well-crystallized specimens were mainly collected at the hanging-wall of these two columns, where  two  different  kinds  of  mineralized fissures occurred, i.e., shear and extension fissures. Both fissures probably formed during the late-stage evolution of the Bottino ore body, owing to the rheological contrast between ductile sulfides and brittle country rocks. Most of the historical specimens kept in the old collections (e.g., the Cerpelli collection) were collected in shear fissures, whereas mineral collectors, after the closure of the mine, were able to exploit a lot of extension fissures, because shear fissures were located at the hangingwall of the ore body that was completely extracted during the mining activity. On the contrary, extension fissures propagated within the barren country rocks and were not removedby miners during the mining exploitation. Boulangerite was found in both kinds of occurrence.
The  actual  identification  of  the plumose specimens of sulfosalts from the Bottino mine was possible only in the 20th Century, when Carlo Lorenzo Garavelli used X-ray diffraction to study them, identifying boulangerite. Previously, several different sulfosalts were erroneously reported (e.g., heteromorphite, jamesonite). For instance, the beautiful plumose specimens were usually labelled as jamesonite in old papers and collections. It is worth noting that no important boulangerite specimens dating to the mining period are kept in mineral collections, the only exception being represented by the specimen 17656 of the Natural History Museum of the Pisa University, previously belonging to the Cerpelli collection. However, also the quality of this specimen is lower than that of those found by mineral collectors during the last fourty years and carefully extracted from the fissuresof the Bottino ore body. The most important  findings  were  performed during the 1980s in the Sansoni zone, and later between 2005 and 2011 in the Orsini zone.

In  1994,  the  careful  exploration  of the area to the north of Sant’Ilario in Campo  (Elba  Island)  led  to  the  discovery, in the Forcioni Valley, of a new pegmatite vein that had escaped the research of Luigi Celleri (the most famous digger of Elba pegmatites in the XIX century) and the many collectors who, in the past, had explored the area. The polychrome crystals of elbaite extracted from the cavities of this vein rival in quality and beauty with those found in the most famous places in the San Piero area. The Forcioni Valley is located much furthe rnorth than the classic localities of Grotta d’Oggi, Facciatoia, Fonte del Prete and Prado, and it was known in the past only for a few small crystals of blue beryl extracted from small pegmatitic veins. The Med-iterranean maquis north of Sant’Ilario, including the Forcioni Valley, was devastated by a great fire during the summer of 1993. Previously impenetrable areas became easily explorable. In the spring of 1994 one of the authors (A.D.), hanging through the carbonized vegetation, found a beautiful specimen of elbaite in green crystals. It was abandoned near an ancient trench excavated, perhaps by Luigi Celleri, near the locality of Casa Mastaglino in the Gorgolinato Valley. The following autumn, two of the article’s authors (A.+D. and M. L.) organized an expedition to the Gorgolinato Valley to follow up the traces of the specimen which was fortunately found. The old trenches
in this valley did not give good results and the exploration was extended to the north, in the nearby Forcioni Valley. One of the authors (M. L.), found small pieces of pegmatite with pink elbaite scattered in the soil of a small  thermal fluids. The excavation of the vein was abandoned in January 1995 at a depth of about 3 meters. After that, the expert collector Federico Pezzotta continued  the  excavation  during  the Spring 1995, focusing on the southern part of the vein. Federico found a second columnar cluster of cavities from which he extracted some remarkable specimens with elbaite in green crystals. Also in this case, the termination of many crystals was corroded. Federico and Marco tried to deepen the excavation during the spring of 2006 but the results were disappointing. The vein tapered down and the granite host rock became extremely hard to remove. The pegmatite vein of Forcioni Valley represents the northernmost vein of the San Piero-Sant’Ilario pegmatite field to have provided beautiful elbaite specimens.
nr. 2-2023

Sicily was one of the most important sulfur producers worldwide during the 19th century; this mining activity favoured the collection of beautiful mineral specimens, actively sought by Italian and foreign mineral collectors and dealers. Meanwhile, mineralogical studies led to the discovery of the new mineral melanophlogite as well as to the finding of nice crystals of hauerite. Following the crisis of the Sicilian  sulfur  mines  related  to  the introduction of the Frash method for the exploitation of sulfur deposits and the increasing production of sulfur as a by-product of oil industry, the last sulfur mines closed in 1988. Currently, it is difficult to find good sulfur specimens, whereas it is still possible to get nice specimens of celestine and, less commonly, of aragonite. The genesis of this kind of ore deposits is related to the so-called “Messinian salinity crisis”, occurred between 5.96and 5.33 My ago, leading to the formaion of thick evaporitic sequences. Sulfur is probably related to the biologially mediated reduction of gypsum (or  anhydrite);  the  oxidation  of  H2S would had favoured the precipitation of native sulfur, while Ca2+, released by calcium sulfates, combined with CO2 produced by bacterial activity promoted the crystallization of calcium carbonates (calcite and aragonite). Aragonite  specimens  from  Sicily  are well-known among mineralogists; several scientists of the 19th century described this carbonate. The most iconic specimens are those found at the Giumentaro mine during the 1970s and  1980s.  This  mine,  located  close to Caltanissetta but belonging to the Enna province, was opened in the first   half of the 18th century and exploited a sulfur deposit from the outcrops down to ca. 400 m below the ground level (XII level). Aragonite occurs as pseudo-hexagonal prismatic crystals, with colors ranging from white to grey to light green; rarely, light pinkish or brownish crystals have been reported. It is worth noting that, in addition to its beautiful morphology, aragonite from Sicilian sulfur mines shows a remarkable red fluorescence under UV light. The most important finding was performed between the XII and XI level in 1975, when a huge cavity was found, completely lined by well-crystallized druses of aragonite. The story of this exceptional discovery is briefly described. In addition to aragonite, other minerals found in the Giumentaro mine are calcite, celestine, gypsum, and native sulfur.

The  Oneta  mines  are  located  in  the Gorno mining district (Orobic Alps, Lombardy) and are easily accessible from Bergamo. These mines were exploited in the past for zinc and lead. Moreover, the mines of the Gorno mining district are well known among mineral collectors for the occurrence of interesting mineral species, e.g., wulfenite. The Oneta mines have always been considered "poor" from the point of view of their mineralogical variety. In fact, no rare minerals have been reported so far. Some years ago, one of the authors of this paper (F.V.) found a peculiar mineral assemblage mainly formed by Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides and their oxidation products in the Fortuna n. 1 level of the Riso mine. Among secondary phases, several sulfates  were  identified.  Some  of  them are very rare in Italy [e.g., lahnsteinite and beaverite(Zn)], whereas others are here described for the first time in Lombardy, i.e., beaverite-(Zn) [also first Italian occurrence], bianchite, brianyoungite, glaucocerinite, hawleyite, lahnsteinite, osarizawaite, plumbojarosite,  ramsbeckite,  woodwardite, and zincwoodwardite. Beaverite-(Cu), jarosite, and devilline are first reported for the Gorno mining district. Some of these species may form nice specimens suitable for micromount collections. The sulfate assemblages are located at the stratigraphic contact between the
Calcare Metallifero Bergamasco Fm. (Carnian) and the basal black-shales of the Gorno Fm. However, layers of black shales with Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe-sulfides and secondary sulphates have been observed also in the upper portion of the Calcare Metallifero Bergamasco Fm.
Renato Pagano

nr. 3-2023

Beautiful,  crystallized  specimens  of marcasite  have  occasionally  been found in the large Družna open-cast coal mine (Czech Republic). Owing to a special permission granted by the mine management, ten years ago it was possible  to  organize  a  field-trip  that allowed the collection of several nice specimens by a team formed by Czech and  Italian  collectors.  The Družba mine  is  located  in  the  large  area  of the Czech-Bavarian Geopark (  The  first  information about coal production in the Sokolov region dated back to 1642. In the 19th Century, coal began to be used as fuel in industrial plants. At the end of the WWII, 39 underground and 15 open pit mines were active in this area. Over the next years, underground workings were closed one after another in favour of open pit exploitation. The coal production peaked in 1983, with a total production of 23 million tons of coal. Currently,  all  mining  activities  are concentrated at the Družba open pit, having a total area of about 50 km2. This mine occurs in the Sokolov Basin, a tertiary tectonic depression bounded to the north and south by two tectonic lineaments, the Krušné Hory Mountains and Ohře faults, respectively. The basin is filled with Tertiary sediments of fluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic origin. Coal was formed in marsh envi- ronments, in those areas where the basin depth was shallower. Two main coal horizons are known. The oldest (and deeper) is named after Josef and is dated at 24 My, whereas the youngest (and shallower) is known as Antonin and Anezka, and it is dated at 22 My. Marcasite specimens described in this paper were collected in the first half of  May  2013.  In  the  Družba  mine, marcasite-rich  area  is  represented  by a large grey clayey horizon, located at the bottom of a coal layer almost completely removed by the mining activity. Marcasite occurs as exceptional arborescent aggregates, up to more than 20 cm in diameter, formed by cm-sized, twinned, shiny crystals. These aggregates  “flourished”  on  a  substrate  of coal.  Unfortunately,  marcasite  has several conservation issues. For this reason,  ten  years  after  the  collection campaign, only a part of the specimens has been preserved. However, it was an excellent opportunity to study the phenomenon of  marcasite  alteration and  to  discover  some  useful  precautions for its conservation.

Quartz  specimens  characterized  by unusual  morphologies  were  found at Nirano, in the Modena Province (Emilia-Romagna). Specimens were collected in a mineralized outcrop belonging to the Brecce argillose di Baiso Formation, dated to the Eocene.  Quartz  occurs  as  fan-like  aggregates  of  tabular  crystals,  whose peculiar  morphology  was  probably  guided  by  the  thinness  of  the open  fractures  where  it  crystallized. Quartz  is  colorless  to  milky  white, usually  transparent.  In  addition  to crystallized  specimens,  quartz  also occurs  as  the  cryptocrystalline  variety known as chalcedony that forms aesthetical rounded aggregates, from colorless  to  yellowish  or  bluish  in color. The occurrence of opal, reported by other authors, was not observed in the specimens examined during this study. Moreover, some rounded aggregates  of  pseudocubic  crystals, first identified as melanophlogite on the basis of their physical properties, are  actually  quartz.  Probably,  they could be a kind of pseudomorphosis of quartz after melanophlogite.
The Monzoni Mountains have been the  focus  of  several  geological  and mineralogical  studies  for  more  than 200 years. This area is well known for its  classic  specimens  of  vesuvianite, “fassaite”, and ligh-blue calcite, as well The Monzoni Mountains have been the  focus  of  several  geological  and mineralogical  studies  for  more  than 200 years. This area is well known for its  classic  specimens  of  vesuvianite, “fassaite”, and ligh-blue calcite, as well as for gehlenite (first found here), pink anorthite, spinel, garnets, and several zeolites. Currently, about 50 different mineral species are known from this area. Recently, two common sulfides were identified: sphalerite and galena. The former was found in two different localities, i.e., Toal dei Rizoni and Toal dell’Alochét. Samples from this latter locality  are  particularly  interesting, showing aggregates of well developed black crystals of Fe-bearing sphalerite, up to 2-3 cm in size. A reexamination of several specimens kept in the mineral collections of the authors of this paper revealed the occurrence of small crystals of sphalerite, suggesting that this zinc sulfide may be more common than thought in the Monzoni area. Galena was identified on specimens from three  different  localities:  Lago  delle Selle, Toal dell’Alochét, and Colifòn. Usually, samples of galena are intere

Shijiangshanite,  ideally  Pb3CaAl(Si5 O 14 )(OH)3 · 3H2O, was recently de- scribed as a new mineral species from the Shijiangshan mine (Hexigten Banner,  Chifeng  City,  Inner  Mongolia, China). A second world occurrence of this species is here reported. This mineral was identified on a specimen collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole at Lago delle Selle (Monti Monzoni), a classic mineralogical site well-known as type locality for gehlenite. At Lago delle Selle, shijingshanite occurs as pseudo-octahedral yellowish crystals, up to 0.2-0.4 mm in size, sim- ilar to those found at the Chinese type locality. Associated minerals are vesu- vianite and calcite. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data gave the unit-cell parameters a = 8.765(4), c = 39.244(19) Å, V = 2611(2) Å3, space group R3c. In the same occurrence, some Pb- and Cu-bearing  secondary  minerals  have been  identified:  beaverite-(Cu),  bro- chantite, cerussite, creaseyite, chrysocolla,  malachite,  and  posnjakite.  As regards creaseyite, this is the first identification in Trentino-Alto Adige.

Baghdadite is a rare Ca-Zr disilicate reported so far in less than 15 locali- ties worldwide. This short paper de- scribes a new finding from the Monti Monzoni, northern Italy. Baghdadite was identified in a specimen collect- ed in 2018 from the well-known lo- cality of Toal del Malinverno, on the northern  slope  of  the  Monti  Monzoni. Baghdadite occurs as tabular, spear-like, crystals, up to 1 mm in size, colorless, with a vitreous luster, associated with lizardite, in a cavity filled by calcite hosted in massive grossu- lar. The identification of baghdadite was  performed  through  qualitative chemical EDS analysis, showing Ca, Zr, and Si as the only elements with Z > 8, and single-crystal X-ray diffrac- tion. Refined unit-cell parameters of the studied sample are a = 10.426(7), b = 10.181(9), c = 7.366(6) Å, β = 90.51(9)°, space group P21/a.

Specimens of hematite from the Rio Marina mine are well-known world- wide  owing  to  the  beauty  of  their crystals. Since the end of the mining activity, at the beginning of the 1980s, it has been increasingly difficult to find good specimens of this mineral. In this short paper the history of an unusual finding of a nice sample of hematite is reported. The specimen was found by a mason in a hollow within a wall of an old house in Rio Marina, along with a coin dating back to 1866.
nr. 4-2023

The valley of the Fosce stream is known among local mineral collectors for a series of well-crystallized species, usually forming nice micromounts. In Spring 2018, in the up- per part of this valley, a very localized mineralization, hosted in a carbonated serpentinite and formed by dolomite+quartz±cinnabar was found. The discovery was promoted by the examination of old geological maps of the area, indicating some zones where quartz veins were mapped. Cinnabar is the most interesting mineral, and it occurs as rounded microcrystalline aggregates, up to 4 cm in size, associated with dolomite and quartz. Dolomite was collected in lenticular or rhombohedral crystals, up to 2 cm in length, whereas quartz can form very shiny crystals up to 1.5 cm.

The valley of the Fosce stream is located close to the hamlet of Orciatico, in the municipality of Lajàtico, in the Era Valley, province of Pisa, Tuscany. Minerals can be found in several outcrops and along the Fosce stream in three different geological settings: i) Argille a Palombini (Palombini shales), ii) basalts and other ophiolitic rocks, and iii) neogenic sediments. The Palombini shales are formed by shales and limestones. Veins and fractures within the latter host sevral different mineral species: anatase, aragonite,    baryte,    brookite,    calcite,chalcopyrite, dawsonite, dickite, dolomite,  galena,  goethite,  pyrite,  quartz, siderite, and sphalerite. Among them, dawsonite, whose origin is related to the flux of CO2, can form nice specimens, with hairy acicular crystals, white in col- our, up to 2 cm in length. Basaltic rocks are usually poor in interesting samples. Only  analcime  can  form  nice  speci- mens, with colorless icositetrahedral individuals up to 2 mm; other species from this kind of occurrence are albite, azurite,  calcite,  chalcopyrite,  epidote, hematite, magnetite, malachite, and “pumpellyite”. Some blocks of hydro-thermalites (i.e.,carbonated and silicified  serpentinites)  are  scattered  along the  Fosce  stream;  in  addition  to  nice bipyramidal quartz crystals, less than 5 mm in size, small crystals of millerite, as sprays of brassy yellow metallic crystals, and its secondary products (jamborite?) can be found. Neogenic sediments of the Orciatico area are known since the end of the 1920s for the occurrence of crystals  of  celestine  (“barytocelestine” of old authors) in fractures of carbonate nodules; currently it is very difficult to collect new samples of this mineral, that was associated with minor dolomite, calcite,  and,  rarely,  quartz.  In  some cases, these carbonate nodules can also host euhedral crystals of gypsum. The identification of the mineral species de- scribed in this paper was achieved using X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analyses  (EDS  mode),  and  micro-Raman spectroscopy.
The Cuasso al Monte quarries (Varese  Province,  Lombardy,  Italy)  are well-known among mineral collec- tors  for  several  remarkable  findings of  well-crystallized  mineral  speci- mens. Usually, these samples can be collected within miarolitic cavities and vugs of the pegmatitic facies of the granophyre. Veins of greisen and micro-greisen can be rarely observed. This paper summarizes the results of mineralogical studies performed on mineral samples collected from this latter kind of occurrence that was in itially known for the presence of nice specimens of topaz only. During the last decades, several interesting mineral  species  were  identified.  Among them, the most interesting ones are represented  by  betpakdalite-CaCa, betpakdalite-CaMg, canaphite, petrovskaite, native lead, native tin, and visminorvite. Some of these species can  be  observed  only  through  electron microscopy on polished sections. However, their occurrence suggests the possibility of finding rare or potentially new mineral species in greisen from Cuasso al Monte.
Three new mineral species were described from Italian local ities in 2022, i.e., sarrochite, napoliite, and manuelarossiite Sarrochite was found in the small dumps of the Bi-Mo prospect of Su Seinargiu, near Sarroch (CA). It occurs in quartz veins, associated with muscovite and, rarely, ferrimolybdite, as pseudo-hexagonal prismatic crystals, up to 0.1 mm in size orange in color. The name of this species is after the name of the municipality where Su Seinargiu is located. Napoliite and manuelarossiite were discovered as sublimates on scoriae from fumaroles related to the 1944 eruption of the Vesuvius. Napoliite is a Pb oxy-halide occurring in aggregates of colorless lamellar crystals, up to 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.01 mm, flattened on {001}, associated with anglesite, artroeite, atacamite, calcioaravaipaite, cerussite, challacol- loite, cotunnite, hephaistoiste, matlockite, susannite, and the other new mineral manuelarossite. This latter species is a Pb-Ca-Al fluoride, structurally related to aravaipaite and calcioaravaipaite. It occurs as colorless tabular crystals, up to 0.06 × 0.04 × 0.015 mm, flattened on {001}. Napoliite is dedicated to the city of Naples, close to the Monte Som- ma – Vesuvius volcanic complex, whereas manuelarossiite honours Manuela Rossi (b. 1977) for her studies on the mineralogy of the Vesuvian area.
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